3. The new technologies before and after a performance

3.1 The use of new technologies to create a community

This is one of the most important and practical uses of the new technologies in venues used for the performing arts. The fundamental aim of the use of new technologies consists of enriching experience of the performing arts. Contact is not limited to “today, here and now”, but extends to the relationship with the theatre after the performance. The old aspiration of getting the spectator to become part of the artistic project is more feasible than ever thanks to the new information technologies.

As shown in the diagram “Conceptual model of relationship development of a theater”, it is sought to build a habitual, lasting relationship, which brings the spectator in to share the future of the theatre. Amongst his or her fundamental tasks, the artistic director will build this relationship as one of the fundamental aims, as it forms a direct channel to the spectators or subscribers and lets them share in the principles that underlie the artistic project.

Using social media a common‐interest community can be formed, with a fundamental commercial, marketing objective. The idea is to loyalise a public that wants to keep informed, find out about the details of the staging before seeing it and even to talk to the actors or singers, as many of them are starting to acquire a presence in the social media. Facebook and Twitter are the most usual media, with the largest number of users. Almost all performing arts entities now subscribe to YouTube.

As Esteban Trigos mentions in his article in this Annual Report “Cultural sector marketing and consumption through digital technology”, the new communication technologies present challenges such as the segmentation of the public and the creation of value‐added applications that improve the public’s experience. Crowdfunding and crowdsourcing call for special mention, as they have become ways to generate productions and audiences that have already come into existence, but which will continue to be refined in the future.

Conceptual model of relationship development of a theater

Diagram “Conceptual model of relationship development of a theater” (Conway and Whitelock, 2003) mentioned in Social Media Marketing In Performing Art Centers, doctoral thesis submitted by Natalia V. Ryzhkova in the Graduate School at Rochester Institute of Technology (May 2010) https://ritdml.rit.edu/bitstream/handle/1850/12677/

To analyse the use of the new technologies to create a community in the performing arts, we have selected the following cases.

SOCIAL MEDIA IN THE PERFORMING ARTS. The use of the social media is very widespread amongst performing arts centres and institutions throughout the world. We shall now see which are the most frequently‐used and the particular uses that have been made of certain less commonplace social networking platforms, something that significantly broadens options for the future. So, we shall discuss here the ones that stand out for this reason, so that they may serves as examples for institutions that are deciding in which social media they are interested in having a presence.

In the study “The Tangled Web: Social Media in the Arts”, carried out in 2011 for Theatre Bay Area (http://www.theatrebayarea.org/)—the theatres in the San Francisco Bay area—to analyse the social media habits of 207 cultural and artistic institutions, it was clear that all of them used at least one social network. The challenge now lies in how to take best advantage of them at these times of cutbacks to all budgets. With regard to the types of social media, it was found that Facebook, Twitter and YouTube were the most usual. On average, these institutions uploaded a total of 66 content items a month and received an average of 162 responses (mentions, “likes”, comments, etc.) for all their social networks.

In this way, the uses of the social media in the performing arts can be divided into two groups:

1st group: social media that are regarded as essential, where one must always have a presence.
Facebook (the most common)
Twitter (an average of four tweets a day)
YouTube (on average one new video uploaded per week)

2nd group: social media that are additional or optional but in which, depending on the profile, an institution may fit in with the characteristics of some specific social network.

Vimeo, the alternative to YouTube: http://vimeo.com/englishnationalopera, http://vimeo.com/channels/opera

Instagram: http://instagram.com/englishnationalopera/#

Flickr (used more as an archive than for social networking): http://www.flickr.com/photos/komische‐oper‐berlin/, http://www.flickr.com/photos/mataderomadrid/

FACEBOOK RANKING OF OPERA HOUSES

FACEBOOK RANKING OF OPERA HOUSES

Google +: https://plus.google.com/102988227450719931549/videos

Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/glyndebourne/, http://www.pinterest.com/teatroallascala/

Yelp: leisure search engine that includes the ratings of establishments. In Spain little use is made of it for culture and theatre. http://www.yelp.com/c/sf/theater

Foursquare: another leisure search engine that gives a rating. In Spain there is no tab for theatre or the performing arts, but there is for art museums. https://it.foursquare.com/v/arena‐diverona/4baef12ff964a52023e33be3

Dailymotion: audiovisual service used by the Théâtre de l'Odéon, one of the six national theatres in France. http://www.dailymotion.com/TheatreOdeon#video=x168k0y

CASE STUDIES OF THE USAGE OF SOCIAL NETWORKS

Admiralspalast

http://www.admiralspalast.de/

After being restored six years ago, this Berlin theatre, built in 1910, has preserved much of its original charm as a variety theatre, even though it served as home to the Staatsoper in the post‐war years, until the reconstruction of the Unter den Linden building. Presence in the social media: Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Flickr: http://www.flickr.com/photos/admiralspalast/

BBC PROMS

BBC PROMS

BBC Proms (Londres)

http://www.bbc.co.uk/proms

Its connection with the BBC lends this London summer festival a multimedia presence that few others could imitate. The service is based on all the BBC material: live broadcasts, which may then be heard online for a week, interviews and special programmes made by BBC Radio 3. But the fact that concerts are broadcast live does nothing to prevent the Royal Albert Hall being full.

BBC PROMS EN TWITTER

BBC PROMS EN TWITTER

The Web is the platform, which has a multiplicity of entrances and levels of reading. For each concert more information is available about the composer, mainly from material made by the BBC itself. The section “Where to start” is the clearest example, in which the viewer/listener is at the heart of the strategy.

It combines excellent pre‐concert information, ticket sales close at hand and the BBC’s recordings that are available for one week. Dialogue focusses on Facebook (with 27,000 followers) and Twitter (28,000 followers). For the last season an image line was developed, in connection with Instagram, to promote the concerts, also distributed by Facebook and Twitter, so that the images could easily be resent to others.

SOUNDCLOUD

SOUNDCLOUD

Soundcloud

Social network that brings together the collected podcasts of lectures and round table discussions on each of the works programmed by the Royal Opera House.

https://soundcloud.com/royaloperahouse?utm_source=wordfly&utm_medium=email&utm_ca mpaign=2013_Oct_Cinema_DonQ_Spain&utm_con tent=version_A&emailsource=17467

AUDIENCE SEGMENTATION

Mercat de les Flors (Barcelona)

http://mercatflors.cat/es

Audience guidance and segmentation. There are few artistic entities where this approach can be seen right from the moment the visitor first enters the Web site. Whether it is for the first time or if someone is looking for a plan for small children, or if one is a fan wanting to share experiences with others, the Mercat de les Flors website will lead in different ways to participation in the centre’s artistic life.

MERCAT DE LES FLORS

MERCAT DE LES FLORS

A notable case is the “Ambassadors” programme, which deals exclusively with all those ready to spread the word about what has been programmed at the Mercat. They are, as it were, unofficial representatives, who also usually have a blog where they can share their experiences with others. (http://mercatflors.cat/es/publicos/embajadores/) Also interesting is “We are all the Mercat”, a videoblog showing the experiences which some members of the audience recorded in words or on video. http://25anys.mercatflors.cat/lang/es/

MERCAT DE LES FLORS

MERCAT DE LES FLORS

CROWDFUNDING

Crowdfunding is a new way of obtaining funding to enable certain projects to go ahead, with the particular characteristic that it is done collectively. If someone likes a particular idea or finds it interesting, they can donate a certain amount of money to be used to set the project up. The process is very simple: someone has an idea (any idea, from writing a stage play, staging a forgotten work, composing an opera and staging it or some choreography that a company has been trying to do for years) and then they show it on some digital platform. Hundreds of users see the idea and if they like it they can support it financially, with whatever amount they wish. When the target sum has been reached, the money is collected from the users and they are usually given some recompense proportionate to the donation (such as a ticket to see rehearsals of the work).

In November 2012, the innovation laboratory of RTVE (the Spanish state broadcaster) drew up a report analysing the situation in Spain of the crowdfunding model (http://lab.rtve.es/crowdfunding‐espana/). According to this datamap, publishing projects are the ones that have most success (81.1%), followed by musical ones (79.1%), the latter being the art‐form that most often seeks this type of funding. It also concludes that the highest failure‐rate is that of low‐budget projects, as these figures show: with over €50,500 (0), €30,000– €50,500 (3), €15,000–€30,000 (9), €10,000–€15,000 (17), €5,000–€10,000 (96), €2,500–€5,000 (220), and under €2,500 (417). Catalonia is the region with most crowdfunding projects, with 52% of the Spanish total. The success rate for projects in Spain is 73%, compared with the European average of 80%.

This way of funding will become more and more normal in the cultural sector, since the ongoing economic crisis presages a lengthy period without any return to the levels of support for cultural projects formerly provided by the public authorities. As Esteban Trigos mentions in his article “Cultural sector marketing and consumption through digital technology”, we are today in a scenario in which most of the crowdfunding projects in Spain are cultural ones, connected with the audiovisual arts, music, film, performing arts or literature. There are as many as 60 platforms, of which we should mention the following: Lanzanos.com (http://www.lanzanos.com/) is a website devoted to seeking funding for “dreamers” who can turn their ideas and projects into reality. However, not all of them will see the light of day. A candidate project is sent to the website where it enters the area called “La Caja” (the box). Only projects that receive a majority of votes in favour will eventually obtain the requested money. In return, the sponsors—anyone who wants to contribute anything from €1.00 to €250, depending on the project, will receive acknowledgements from the applicants in proportion to the amount contributed. Working in a similar way, Goteo.org (http://goteo.org/), is a social networking site for monetary contributions and distributed cooperation. Verkami (http://www.verkami.com/) specialises in creative projects. This platform works in a similar way to the ones already described: a project is published and is given a page to describe all the details: what it is, what it consists of, how much money is needed and how it is to be distributed. The applicant has 40 days to collect the necessary money and thus be enabled to carry the project forward, in return for which the patrons receive some sort of recompense.

DER KAISER VON ATLANTIS

DER KAISER VON ATLANTIS

Der Kaiser von Atlantis

http://www.verkami.com/projects/6041‐representacion‐de‐el‐emperador‐de‐la‐atlantidaopera‐de‐viktor‐ullmann

In October, the Asociación Aragonesa de la Ópera was able to stage this little‐heard and little‐known opera by Viktor Ullmann, which he wrote in a concentration camp before arriving at Auschwitz, where eventually he died. The association instigated a crowdfunding campaign on the Verkami website and achieved its aims: it collected €5,420 of the €5,000 that had been sought through promotion on the Web and in the social media.

Caminos

http://www.lanzanos.com/proyectos/caminos/

Cristina Rosa launched this project to bring to life a one‐person show of theatre and dance in which she uses her body and her voice as the main vehicles of the performing arts. The piece passes through different times of life, such as the search for lifeaims at different ages and their various nuances. A multidisciplinary show that brings together dance, acting, music, lighting and audiovisual. “The idea of creating this one‐person show was inspired by my last spell at the École des Sables, Senegal, in 2011”, said Cristina Rosa in the presentation of her idea. “After returning to my home city of Badajoz in Spain, I put a lot of work and effort into developing the project for over a year, and when that process was nearing completion, I thought it necessary finalise it and thus end this cycle where it began, in the École des Sables, Senegal, with help and review by Patrick Acogny (codirector together with his mother, Germaine Acogny, of the École des Sables)”. Rosa promised to keep her donors informed about the progress of the project, particularly the final stages of the creative project in Senegal. She obtained €3,360 after requesting €3,200.

CROWDSOURCING

Crowdsourcing opens up infinite possibilities for creative collaboration through participation. The new technologies have become an ideal medium for creative proposals open to a broad audience so that they can contribute to setting them up and developing them. In comparison with crowdfunding, we could say that this is more a way of contributing work and ideas than a way of contributing money. This concept is thoroughly explained in the article by Tíscar Lara in this Annual Report, entitled “Crowdsourcing. Shared Culture”. Both this writer and Esteban Trigos, in “Cultural sector marketing and consumption through digital technology”, coincide when they state that most of the crowdsourcing projects that are undertaken have culture as a common denominator.

Diablo Ballet: Flight of the Dodo

http://youtu.be/w_9GTbuYHxE

This dance company from San Francisco once again serves as an example, precisely with a project that emerged after using social networking as a strategy to bond with audiences, as we saw in the previous case. Flight of the Dodo is a work that was entirely conceived on the Internet. During January and February 2013, the company called a brainstorming session on Twitter for suggestions for a new show. tweets such as “The story of Dodo Bird, birds that cannot fly and are beginning to become extinct”, “Feeling of the choreography: deliberately ironical”, or “Turquoise” reached choreographer Robert Dekkers. In total, 130 ideas of which eight were selected for the conception of the new production. Even the music chosen by the choreographer, the Concerto for two cellos by Vivaldi, was decided in an online vote.

PROGRAMME PROMOTION

National Theatre (Londres)

http://www.nationaltheatre.org.uk/discover‐more/backstage/videos

The theatre’s website includes a video channel to bring audiences closer to all that world that is not seen but which is just as fascinating in its way. Creative activity backstage can be just as interesting as the work itself. These videos let members of the audience understand the role of the many creative people who never appear on stage but without whom the performance would not be possible.

NATIONAL THEATRE

NATIONAL THEATRE

Your Digital Double, by Headlong (UK)

http://www.digital‐double.com/digital‐double/
http://headlong.co.uk/work/1984/#details

The Headlong theatre company, from the UK, has promoted its adaptation of George Orwell’s novel 1984 through a Web application. Whoever accesses it can check out their “digital double”, that is to say, everything Internet companies know about us through our search engine enquiries, access and online purchasing history. “Big Brother is watching you.”

Livekritik.de (Germany)

German website that collects the opinions of the public about the programming of the performing arts in five regions of the country. Those particularly recommended by the public are displayed conspicuously. http://www.livekritik.de/

LIVEKRITIK.DE

LIVEKRITIK.DE

Stage Entertainment (Germany)

https://itunes.apple.com/de/podcast/stage.tv/id639547160

Theatre and performing arts company that manages twelve theatres in five German cities, five of them in Berlin, such as the iconic Theater des Westens and the brand‐new Theater am Potsdamer Platz. The methods used to promote its productions include a podcast channel on iTunes, where it places audiovisual news produced by the Stage company itself of the works staged in its theatres, showing images of the premiere, opinions from famous people who go to see productions, etc. It is interesting that, instead of making a podcast for each theatre, they are made under the company’s logo for all of them. All the images used are watermarked with the logo of Stage TV.

STAGE ENTERTAINMENT

STAGE ENTERTAINMENT

Sydney Opera House (Australia)

A portal that brings together short videos to promote the cultural content of the complex, to which at the moment eight cultural organisations contribute. The categories range from dance, music and opera to theatre. http://play.sydneyoperahouse.com/

SETTING UP FORUMS

Portal de la Danza (Inaem)

http://www.danza.es/

Conceived not just for spectators but also, above all, for professional dancers, who have a private section (Club Danza.es) accessible using a password. It is present in Facebook, Twitter and YouTube and it is the only website out of those analysed to have a profile on LinkedIn: http://es.linkedin.com/pub/danza‐es‐inaem/54/6a/397. There is also a billboard section, to find out about all the shows connected with dance and ballet.

These portals also play an archival role, bringing together all the cultural life taking place within the discipline in question and offering it to users in an organised, categorised format. The article by Kristine Hanna in this Annual Report, “The web archiving life‐cycle model”, goes into this in detail.

SNEO Danza tv3D

http://www.sneodanza.com/index/

SNEO Danza tv3D is an innovative project initiated in March 2011, based on the use of technologies and new languages which consists of the creation of a video‐webzine with two main channels:

It is a place on the Web that serves as a meetingpoint for specialists in image and dance and the arts of movement; for the patronage of artists, styles and media, and to foment dissemination in Spain and abroad of all the stage activities taking place in Spain and Latin America. The channels carry quality content based on their own material and invited artists, who are shown on 3D and HD television. The creation of this webzine is the outcome of multidisciplinary work by designers, programmers, dancers, choreographers, cinematographers, editors and producers, as well as specialists in marketing studies and authors’ rights on the Internet. The use of technology has been a constant in work by SNEO Mestizaje Projects, the company behind this virtual space, from the use of huge projections on facades (El Quijote hip hop, 2005, Biblioteca Nacional) to the production of dance that is viewed entirely through 3D glasses (Ballenas, historias de gigantes, MexicoSpain‐Chile, 2013). The recordings (performances, rehearsals, interviews, pieces, documentaries) are made with 3D cameras, taking the greatest care, particularly during live performance, not to interfere with or distract performers or audience. The editing of dance pieces, the most common resource and the basis of the channel’s programming, and subsequent publishing and dissemination, complete the cycle. Displaying the materials on the computer screen requires the use of anaglyphic spectacles (red‐cyan), which are quite common these days, while viewing on 3D TVs requires active glasses.

SNEO DANZATV3D

SNEO DANZATV3D

SNEO Danza tv3D is present on Facebook and Twitter and has launched its own network: SNEO Danza. La Red (http://sneodanzalared.es/). Anyone interested in the arts of movement can contribute their own materials (texts/videos) and SNEO will edit them and update them. The task of documentation performed by this channel brings an opportunity to many companies that do not have the resources necessary to create and upload their own projects. The performers are not only from Spain, since particular effort is made to record Latin American companies touring Spain.

SNEO DANZA ‐ LA RED

SNEO DANZA ‐ LA RED

Comédie‐Française

http://www.comedie‐francaise.fr/

It is worth mentioning in this study the particular strategy of France’s premiere theatrical institution, which has decided not to have a presence on the usual social networking sites. All it has done is provide a forum on its website, which is a sort of digital mailbox for suggestions and comments, which users may sign or leave anonymous. They can be consulted by the public on the same site.

COMÉDIE‐FRANÇAISE

COMÉDIE‐FRANÇAISE

liquidMaps

http://www.liquidmaps.org/

liquidMaps.org is a new online platform, a hub or virtual nucleus that interconnects agents, bodies and organisms. The initiative is a Web 2.0 service that enables the publication and consultation of cultural material (creations, projects, itineraries, points of interest, various multimedia archives, etc.) on the GoogleMaps® platform. It presents interviews, videos of works recorded in various places and stages around the world, “making‐ofs” and various contents provided by each agent/user. Videos, photos, texts, archives, testimonies, creations and processes provide an approach for spectators/users to the innumerable multidisciplinary concepts and contemporary proposals connected with the body and with movement in a transversal, simple and entertaining way. The information is presented through a mapnetwork that searches, in a visual and intuitive way, the work processes and works of the creators and the centres, institutions and businesses that house them, produce them and disseminate them. Using free microsites and a pioneering online content manager, the user can include a multitude of documents in different formats in his or her interfaces.

LIQUIDMAPS

LIQUIDMAPS

SOLUTIONS FOR TICKET SALES

Although most theatres have had an online booking system for some time, it was found that some have made advances, creating more integrated solutions, such as mobile apps and Web portals for chains of theatres. As Esteban Trigos mentions in his article in this Annual Report entitled, “Cultural sector marketing and consumption through digital technology”, where and how to buy tickets will be the fundamental variables when speaking of models and strategies based on CRM (Customer Relation Management) in the field of the performing arts.

iTunes applications

To offer ticket sales and to provide information about programming. Connection to social networks.

APP ÓPERA DE ROMAAPP SALLE PLEYEL (PARÍS)APP ARENA DI VERONA

APP ÓPERA DE ROMA

https://itunes.apple.com/it/app/operaroma/id416816204?mt=8

APP SALLE PLEYEL (PARÍS)

https://itunes.apple.com/fr/app/salle‐pleyel/id507135398?mt=8

APP ARENA DI VERONA

https://itunes.apple.com/es/app/arena‐di‐verona/id520794544?mt=8

Portals

This is the other option, together with applications. Almost all theatres offer ticket sales on their websites, so it is not difficult to find cases such as the following, in which theatres that all pertain to the same institution provide a centralised portal for ticket sales.

Inaem

http://www.entradasinaem.es/ListaGruposVenta.aspx

Common booking portal for all the theatres in the Inaem group. This portal is linked to from the websites of all the individual theatres.

THEATRE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES

E‐Protea

http://www.embocadura.es/eprotea/eprotea.asp

Theatre management software for theatre management via the Internet developed by Embocadura, a Zaragoza company. This platform can be used for the integrated management of all the aspects of the life of a theatre, such as allocating rehearsals, renting spaces and ticket sales.

SITE Distribución

http://www.sitedistribucion.es/

Online platform for information services on the main systems for the distribution of the performing arts in Spain: circuits, networks, distributors, fairs and venues. The site forms part of a larger programme of action called SITE (Servicios de Información de Tendencias Escénicas), organised by the Cultural Management Department of the ICCMU–Madrid Complutense University. SITE Distribución is the first product of the programme to reach the market and from 2013 access is unrestricted and free of charge. It has a powerful search‐engine, has thorough, updated information about any company or cultural agent, in Spain and abroad, and can draw up a plan or strategy for the distribution of shows in Spain. The aim is to make it easier for new players to enter the scene and to let it be the theatrical projects themselves, and not the control of specialised information, that conditions access to the market.

A NIGHT AT THE SIDNEY OPERA

A NIGHT AT THE SIDNEY OPERA

A NIGHT AT THE SIDNEY OPERA

In early December 2013, the Sidney Opera invited a hundred computer experts to spend 24 hours on the premises, including the night hours, to create an innovative application to promote the institution’s iconic building. Aspirants had to register on the theatre’s website and to present themselves on the appointed day with everything necessary to spend the day working on the new application. No sooner had they arrived than they toured the complex and collected photographic and audiovisual material that was available to the theatre so as to get down to work. Notable amongst these materials was a project carried out by a Scottish company that generated 56,000 3D digital photos of the entire complex. The experts were to work alone or in groups to create the application. They were to submit it the following day at noon and the best prototype would be awarded a prize of 4,000 Australian dollars.

BLOG CREATION

Teatros del Canal (Madrid)

http://www.teatroscanal.com/

Blog “No me montes una escena” (Don’t make a scene!). Conceived as a complementary page of the theatre’s website: http://blog.teatroscanal.com/

MC2 (Maison de la Culture de Grenoble)

http://www.mc2grenoble.fr/Le‐blog/p3.html

LA MAISON DE LA CULTURE’S BLOG

LA MAISON DE LA CULTURE’S BLOG

Blog of the Maison de Culture de Grenoble, covering theatre, music and opera. The posts promote cultural content at this centre for the arts, one of the most important in France. This promotion makes use of audiovisual and photographic material, photos of productions, interviews with significant people who visit the centre and radio programmes about the productions. The blog can be followed via an RSS feed that can easily be found on the home page.

WEBSITE DESIGN

Many intangible elements can be communicated through design. At a glance, users can get an impression of the institution they are visiting: what sort of programme they put on, what their priorities are, etc. A similar thing is the case with multiplatform possibilities. As Isabel F. Peñuelas comments in her article, the optimisation of design for different devices, without the need to create many different versions of the website, improves user experience and makes it possible to create a primordial use for each device. Here are some examples.

Thalia Theater (Hamburgo)

http://www.thalia‐theater.de/h/aktuell_31_de.php

One of the main theatres in Hamburg. It is mentioned here because of the originality of the design of its website, which gives visitors a clear idea of the sort of shows to be seen there.

THALIA THEATRE

THALIA THEATRE

MC2 (Maison de la Culture de Grenoble)

http://www.mc2grenoble.fr/Accueil‐mobile/p20.html

Version of the theatre’s website for mobile devices. This approach is to be recommended if the home page is difficult to display on a mobile screen, and users are provided with a quick search of events at the centre.

MAISON DE LA CULTURE DE GRENOBLE ‐ MOBILE WEBSITE

MAISON DE LA CULTURE DE GRENOBLE ‐ MOBILE WEBSITE

FiraTàrrega

http://www.firatarrega.cat/

FiraTàrrega is an international performing arts fair held annually in the town of Tàrrega in the second weekend of September. Since 2013 a new website design has been adopted based on interaction with social networks and with an adaptive design for all devices.

Laburbujacirko!

www.laburbujacirko.com

Animation company that sells its services through an innovative, attractive website.

QR CODES

Quick Response Barcodes, usually called just QR codes, are little black and white squares that open up a new world of possibilities for cultural marketing and electronic social commerce. To access the information they contain, users simply scan the code with their mobile phone to view the content.

A QR CODE ON A POSTER

A QR CODE ON A POSTER

In the performing arts, a QR code can send the user to a wide range of possibilities, ranging from the programme for the season to the times of a specific performance, or to additional information on the works or the performers. The codes can be placed on the website, as in the case of the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes (Compañía Nacional de Teatro de México) http://www.cnteatro.bellasartes.gob.mx/, on posters, as in the case of the Teatro Español (Madrid) or inside theatres, as in the case of the Teatros del Canal.

Conclusions

  1. New technologies led to the radical transformation of stage design over the last century. The latest advances have sown the ground for the effective integration of the various arts from opera, theatre to dance. Videoart has gone a stage further with video mapping techniques that raise the possibility of not even having real stage props on the set.
  2. The technologies should not substitute everything that derives from the main source of expression, which is the body, nevertheless, there are works of new creation, such as Robot, which use robots in their choreography. The question, one that belongs almost to the realm of science fiction, is if a robot will be ever to be able to perform with the same wealth of expression and depth as a dancer.
  3. In the future we shall find ourselves faced with new theatrical works and operas which include audience participation by means of information technology or the use of social networks in real time. It would be yet another step in the integration of the stalls and the stage.
  4. In the performing arts there is no substitute for being physically present to see a work performed live. It remains to be seen how the second screen will form part of live productions. But changes can already be seen: in theatres it is becoming ever more frequent to see somebody with a smartphone ready to tweet something in the middle of a performance.
  5. The challenge will be to reconcile this new audience with the traditional one. Perhaps, therefore, it would not be preposterous to think that in the future mobile phones will have a function called “theatre mode”, similar to “airplane mode” that will completely silence the device, even incoming calls, and only allow Internet access for social networks and for searching for information.
  6. For creators, this second screen also opens up an opportunity, that of being able to integrate the effect their work is having on the audience in real time, and this is especially so in the case of works of new creation.
  7. If, in the short term, this second screen does not become a way of communicating with other members of an audience, who may be present in the building or elsewhere outside, it can be used as a support for theatre information that was previously provided on paper.
  8. Theatres and auditoria have become audiovisual producers of their performances enabling them to generate income additional to that generated by sponsorship and ticket sales. Any theatreor opera‐goer has available, via their computer or a relatively nearby cinema, the entire season of concerts by orchestras of international repute, as well as the most important theatrical, operatic or dance performances.
  9. Social media enable common‐interest communities to be formed around the performing arts. Theatres can exploit this as a way of loyalising a public that wants to keep informed, find out about the details of the staging before seeing it and even to talk to the actors or singers, as many of them are starting to acquire a presence in the social media. Facebook and Twitter are the most usual media, with the largest number of users. Almost all performing arts entities now subscribe to YouTube.
  10. These networks also enable the public to participate in the creation and production of works through such formulae as crowdfunding and crowdsourcing.
  11. Websites are an ideal platform for distributing such visual content as the visual arts. Together with promotion Web sites are expanding to include educational resources which widen access to these cultural venues to new audiences.
  12. Similarly, access to the performing arts for the disabled has been boosted by the new technologies.

ACCIÓN CULTURAL ESPAÑOLA (AC/E)

Board of Directors

President
M.ª Teresa Lizaranzu Perinat

Members
María Claver Ruiz
Fernando Eguidazu Palacios
Víctor García de la Concha
Manuel Ángel de Miguel Monterrubio
Valle Ordóñez Carbajal
María Belén Plaza Cruz
Jesús Prieto de Pedro
Miguel Ángel Recio Crespo
Susana de la Sierra Morón
Itziar Taboada Aquerreta
Alberto Valdivielso Cañas

Secretary of the Board
Miguel Sampol Pucurull

Management team

Elvira Marco Martínez
Director General

Jorge Sobredo Galanes
Director of Programmes

Carmelo García Ollauri
Chief Financial Officer

Pilar Gómez Gutiérrez
Director of Production

Organised and published by
Acción Cultural Española (AC/E)

Director
Javier Celaya

Coordination
Raquel Mesa (AC/E)

Texts
Isabel Fernández Peñuelas
Kristine Hanna
Sergio Jiménez Arenas
Tíscar Lara
José de la Peña Aznar
Antonio Rodríguez de las Heras
Carlos A. Scolari
Felipe Santos
Esteban Trigos
José Antonio Vázquez Aldecoa

English translation
duual.com (Gary Huxley)

Design and PDF layout
Ibai Cereijo

Epub formatting
Valentín Pérez

Cover picture
©Paper Boat Creative/Gettyimages

The AC/E Digital Culture Annual Report is published free of charge under an "Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs" Creative Commons license that allows readers to copy and distribute it by any means, as long as the authors and the AC/E are credited, no commercial use is made of the work, and no modifications are made to it
© Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs 3.0 Unported

www.accioncultural.es
#AnuarioACE

ISBN: 978-84-15272-53-3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to thank all the people and companies who volunteered to participate in this study by sending descriptions of their good digital practice in the performing arts in response to the invitation to do so made by AC/E through its Web site www.accioncultural.es in September and October 2013.

We would also like to thank all the organisations and people whose experiences are mentioned as examples of digital practice in the various sections of this study.

We would also welcome your comments and observations about this publication which you can send to: raquel.mesa@accioncultural.es

cubierta

2.2 The commercial of performances as an audiovisual exploitation product

New high definition techniques and high quality sound have meant that recordings of auditorium and theatre performances can be marketed through the technologies, such as platforms that enable high quality streaming, as new audiovisual products.

Theatres and auditoria have therefore become audiovisual producers and this means that, in addition to the public in attendance, they have a complementary and additional commercial resource available. The real challenge consists of not converting these two products in substitutes for each other but as complementary to each other. A recent study in the United Kingdom about theatre productions that can be seen via streaming through chains of cinemas concludes that the public attending do not feel dissuaded from attending the theatre but, on the contrary, feel much more motivated to buy a theatre ticket and see the work live the next time. (http://www.nesta.org.uk/publications/beyond‐live).

In his work The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, Walter Benjamin says, “That which withers in the age of mechanical reproduction is the aura of the work of art”. In a theatrical work, in an opera or dance performance there is nothing to substitute the experience of being present in the audience. But these performances can be enjoyed in a different way through a means of reproduction such as a DVD or live streaming. Under ideal circumstances the spectator would prefer to be in the theatre but often, the fact of living in another country, or not being able to afford either the journey or the ticket for the performance mean that such options are the best way of enjoying a pleasant evening.

Any theatre‐goer twenty years ago would simply find it incredible to learn that now in a similar situation anyone attracted by the performing arts and music has available, via their computer or a relatively nearby cinema, the entire season of concerts by the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra and the most important productions of opera houses such as Covent Garden in London or the Metropolitan in New York, La Scala in Milan or the Bayreuth Festival. These institutions have before them the opportunity to multiply their audiences and for every performance to be seen by a number of spectators that would have been unthinkable just some years ago.

For this study, the following cases have been chosen as examples of the current trends in the commercial exploitation of performances as an audiovisual product.

CONCERT HALLS

Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra

http://www.digitalconcerthall.com/es/

The system created by the Berlin Philharmonic, its sound and audio quality, is simply spectacular. It required enormous initial investment but in the long term the idea is that it will pay for itself and become another source of revenue for the orchestra. Above all it has involved the international public and the orchestra’s great admirers who want to see the concerts they have most enjoyed again, as many times and they please. It is a question of recouping the “expanded there and now” that Antonio Rodríguez de las Heras discusses in his article for this Annual Report entitled, “Tensions and trends in digital culture”.

BERLIN PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA

BERLIN PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA

The model consists of the streaming of their concerts on a pay‐per‐view basis. This system, which has been in operation for four years, has enabled them to expand their archive to the point where, today, it is an attraction for spectators, not only for the live concerts, but also for their entire concert archive. In all this time the fee has only been modified once and at the present time this is calculated by time viewed on a flat‐rate basis. There are “tickets” for a day, a month, for a year.

The BPO promotes its concerts through the social media. The main window is Facebook, with more than 500,000 followers, and YouTube, only for promotional videos of three or four minutes. A secondary position is occupied by Twitter, with more than 50,000 followers.

OPERA HOUSES

Metropolitan Opera House (New York)

The Met was a pioneer for the high definition systems and distribution of signals to cinemas around the world, although most of them were located in the Unites States or in Canada. They started in 2006 with a performance of The Magic Flute. During the last season the operas transmitted by the Met in this manner were seen by 2.5 million people in 54 countries around the world achieving an income thereby of $20 million, which it shares with the artists and workers at the opera house. According to The New York Times, it is the only institution to have made this kind of activity profitable. http://www.metoperafamily.org/metopera/liveinhd/LiveinHD.aspx?nav=top

These transmissions are the basis of its on‐demand service and the future publication of its operas on DVD which it always markets together with abundant additional material such as behind the scenes interviews, reports about the stage setting and so on. This material can usually also be seen during the intervals of live opera performances and the service also has a corresponding application for iPads. http://www.metoperafamily.org/ondemand/index.aspx

METROPOLITAN OPERA

METROPOLITAN OPERA

Royal Opera House (Londres)

Like the Met, the Royal Opera House streams its signal of various of the season’s performances to high definition cinemas. This also enables the segmented promotion of its performances as was recently the case with the ballet Don Quixote which was promoted amongst the Opera House’s Spanish devotees through newsletters and the social media.

STREAMING EN LA ROYAL OPERA HOUSE

STREAMING EN LA ROYAL OPERA HOUSE

The Royal Opera House’s high‐definition signal distribution of its performances has a global reach. Its Web site provides a calendar of its live performances and lists the cinemas at which they can be seen. There is a search engine that indicates the cinema closest to your place of residence. Over the course of the last season it distributed the signal for nine productions which were seen in 38 countries. http://www.roh.org.uk/cinemas

Other similar services are provided by the Glyndebourne Festival Opera (http://glyndebourne.com/production/tristan‐und‐isolde‐0 ), which reached an agreement with The Guardian newspaper for the streaming of one of its operas during each of the last two seasons. The Teatro Real in Madrid has a video on demand service through the Palco Digital platform (http://www.palcodigital.com/) in combination with live streaming to high definition cinemas. Palco Digital can only be accessed via the Internet and has not yet designed an application for other devices such as mobile phones or tablets. La Scala in Milan and the Bavarian State Opera have also adopted the same policy of streaming some of their performances to high‐definition cinemas.

SCREENING OF PERFORMANCES AT THE ROYAL OPERA HOUSE

SCREENING OF PERFORMANCES AT THE ROYAL OPERA HOUSE

AUDIOVISUAL PLATFORMS

Medici.tv

http://www.medici.tv/

This is a Web platform for musical and operatic content. Each year it streams around 80 live concerts which are free as a result of sponsorshipand agreements made with the various concert halls and opera houses. It has an on‐demand video library containing a thousand videos that are available via subscription. It has recently added the technical possibility of accessing the platform via Samsung TV. It receives 80,000 visits every month from 198 countries.

MEDICI.TV

MEDICI.TV

Arte Live Web

http://liveweb.arte.tv/fr

As with the previous case, the thematic channel Arte has an Internet platform and through it can be seen some streamed and some recorded programmes once they have been aired on TV. The problem they continue to face is posed by the fact that viewing rights outside France and Germany have not always been resolved and on many occasions viewing beyond these two countries is impossible, with the consequent audience limitation. Both Medici.tv and Arte Live Web have applications for mobile phones and tablets.

The Digital Theatre

http://www.digitaltheatre.com/

This platform brings together productions from a number of London’s performing arts centres such as the Royal Opera House, the Royal Court, Shakespeare’s Globe and the Royal Shakespeare Company. A total of 18 institutions record their performances in multi‐camera high definition video which is then made available through this digital platform. There are operas, theatrical works and musicals. There is a special subscription for schools and there is an application for Apple iOS and Samsung TV.

DIGITAL THEATRE

DIGITAL THEATRE

Contents

1 WHERE WE ARE HEADING: DIGITAL TRENDS IN THE WORLD OF CULTURE

THEME 1
Tensions and trends in digital culture
by Antonio Rodríguez de las Heras

THEME 2
Crowdsourcing. shared culture
by Tíscar Lara

THEME 3
Gamification, generating commitment to culture
by Sergio Jiménez Arenas

THEME 4
Culture in the cloud
by Isabel Fernández Peñuelas

THEME 5
Cultural sector marketing and consumption through digital technology
by Esteban Trigos

THEME 6
Transmedia storytelling: new ways of communicating in the digital age
by Carlos A. Scolari

THEME 7
The Web Archiving Life Cycle Model
by Kristine Hanna

THEME 8
Are the social networks any use to the culture industry?
by José de la Peña Aznar

THEME 9
The new affective technologies come to the cultural sector
by José Antonio Vázquez Aldecoa

2 FOCUS 2014: THE USE OF THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PERFORMING ARTS

ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PERFORMING ARTS

SUCCESSFUL CASE ANALYSIS AND GOOD PRACTICE

1. The use of the new technologies in performing arts works

VIDEO MAPPING

In opera: El oro del Rin (Oviedo)

In dance: Núria Font

SPACES FOR CREATION

Festival IDN

Interactive Dance Installations

European Performing Arts and Transmedia Lab

WORKS

Robot, by Blanca Li

Ghost Road, by LOD

Trinity, by Òscar Sol and Iris Heitzinger

Compañía Ferroviaria: El sueño de la razón, by Antonio Buero Vallejo

Insectotròpics

Corpo‐Realidad, by María Castellanos

Todos mienten, by Producciones Margarita Iriarte

Skinstrument II, by Daan Brinkmann (Ámsterdam, 1983)

Malabaracirco

Trilogía sobre niños e imágenes, by Teatro Paraíso

2. The influence of the new technologies on the way people view the performing arts

2.1. The use of the new technologies during performances

LIVE OPERA ON TWITTER

Teatro Alla Scala (Milán)

TWITTER PROGRAMMES

National Symphony Orchestra (Washington)

TWEET SEATS

Lyric Opera of Kansas City

Carolina Ballet

Dayton Opera

Saint Louis Shakespeare Festival

Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra

BLOGGER’S NIGHT AT THE OPERA

Vancouver Opera

SOCIAL MEDIA MOMENTS

San Francisco Gay Men’s Chorus

OPERA NINJA

Vancouver Opera

TEXT‐PERTS

The Eyes of Helios (Toronto)

Diablo Ballet (San Francisco)

2.2 The commercial exploitation of performances as an audiovisual product

CONCERT HALLS

Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra

OPERA HOUSES

Metropolitan Opera (Nueva York)

Royal Opera House (London)

Glyndebourne Festival

Teatro Real (Madrid)

Teatro Alla Scala (Milan)

Bavarian State Opera (Munich)

AUDIOVISUAL PLATFORMS

Medici.tv

Arte Live Web

The Digital Theatre

3. The new technologies before and after a performance

3.1 The use of new technologies to create a community

SOCIAL MEDIA IN THE PERFORMING ARTS

CASE STUDIES OF THE USAGE OF SOCIAL NETWORKS

Admiralspalast

BBC Proms (London)

Soundcloud

AUDIENCE SEGMENTATION

Mercat de les Flors (Barcelona)

CROWDFUNDING

Lanzanos.com

Goteo.org

Verkami

Der Kaiser von Atlantis (Zaragoza)

Caminos

CROWDSOURCING

Diablo Ballet: Flight of the Dodo

PROGRAMME PROMOTION

National Theatre (London)

Your Digital Double, by Headlong (UK)

Livekritik.de (Germany)

Stage Entertainment (Germany)

Sydney Opera House (Australia)

SETTING UP PHORUMS

Portal de la Danza (Inaem)

SNEO Danza tv3D

Comédie‐Française